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Fig. 1. Comparison of messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA (miRNA) expression levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients compared to controls by SYBR Green chemistry-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Data are presented as a bar plot for fold change expression as normalized by 2-ΔΔCt probability density with kernel estimator for the genes (growth differentiation factor-15 [GDF-15], mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 7 [SMAD7]) and microRNAs (miR-181b-5p and miR- 330-3p) in both (A) peripheral blood mononuclear cells and (B) visceral adipose tissue in the study population. (C) Protein-protein interaction of GDF-15, SMAD7, and insulin along with their common transcription factors (in orange) with miR-181b-5p and miR-330-3p (in pink). Target prediction was performed on miRNet and network visualization in Cytoscape v3.8.0. (D) Fold change expression for the network genes in T2DM samples of microarray datasets (GSE20950, GSE16415, GSE54350) showed significant differential expression of CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta (CEBPB), insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), insulin receptor (INSR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), IRS2, neural precursor cell expressed developmentally downregulated gene 4-like (NEDD4L), SMAD specific E3 ubiquitin protein ligase 2 (SMURF2), and yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1) in T2DM. Statistical significance considered at *P< 0.05 and P< 0.001. MTA1, metastasis-associated 1; FOS, Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins murine osteogenic sarcoma; AKT1, protein kinase B; YY1, Yin Yang 1; TP53, tumor protein p53.
J Obes Metab Syndr 2023;32:64~76 https://doi.org/10.7570/jomes22010
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