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Fig. 1. The direct physiologic effects of endogenous glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1; black arrows), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP; green arrows), glucagon (red arrows), and amylin (blue arrows). The corresponding representation of these four peptides in target tissues is denoted by a black asterisk, green triangle, red rectangle, and blue circle, respectively. These four peptides exert their effects on the hypothalamus, either directly or indirectly through neuronal conduction, ultimately leading to a reduction in food intake. Adapted from Kim.33 AP, area postrema; NTS, nucleaus tractus solitarius; BAT, brown adipose tissue; WAT, white adipose tissue.
J Obes Metab Syndr 2023;32:106~120 https://doi.org/10.7570/jomes23032