Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome



Korean J Obes 2013; 22(3): 129-136

Published online September 30, 2013

Copyright © Korean Society for the Study of Obesity.

Bone Health and Calcium, Vitamin D, Potassium: Shortfall Nutrients in Korean

Mi-Ja Choi

Department of Food and Nutrition, Keimyung University

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

A rapid increase in the rates of osteoporosis and fractures has been predicted with the increasing aging population in Korea. To achieve optimum bone health, nutrition plays an important role in maximizing bone mass and bone mineral density during peak bone accretion and also delays bone
loss later in life. Adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D are essential throughout the life cycle to maintain bone health and to reduce the risk of osteoporosis. Most Korean diets do not satisfy the DRI for calcium nor for vitamin D and potassium intake also falls short of the recommended amount. Calcium, vitamin D, and potassium are important for bone health, although they are often insufficient in Korean diet. The current Korean DRI for vitamin D intake (AI) in people aged 1~18 years is 5 μg/d (200 IU/d), and the current Korean DRI for calcium and vitamin D intake in people aged > 50 years are 700 mg/d and 10 μg/d (400 IU/d), respectively. However, higher intake of calcium and vitamin D (age ≥ 50 y, age 1~18 y) may actually be required for optimal bone health. Fruits and vegetables are
important sources of potassium. There is a need to emphasize the importance between an adequate diet and bone mineral density and bone mineral content. Overall dietary pattern, diet quality, and the ratio of each nutrient can affect bone health. Future studies should be conducted on nutrient ratio, whole foods, dietary patterns and their relationship to bone metabolism and fracture risk.

Keywords: Osteoporosis, Calcium, Vitamin D, Potassium, Fruits and vegetables

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