Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome



Korean J Obes 2012; 21(2): 115-123

Published online June 30, 2012

Copyright © Korean Society for the Study of Obesity.

Effects of Sedentary Behavior Modification on an Exercise Intervention-Induced Improvements in Body Fatness and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Women

Hun-Kyum Kwon, Chang-Duk Ha, Hyun-Sik Kang*

College of Sport Science, Sungkyunkwan University

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the beneficial effects that sedentary behavior modification has on obesity and metabolic syndrome among obese women who participated in a 12 week exercise intervention program.
Methods: A total of 38 women voluntarily participated in a 12-week exercise intervention program. The intervention included treadmill aerobic exercise, circuit weight training, stretching and sedentary behavior odification, which was done by reducing sitting time during postprandial periods. Primary outcomes including body fat, physical fitness, and metabolic risk factors were measured prior to and after the intervention. After completion of the intervention, the subjects were classified into one of the following three groups; those who were in the high 25 percentile (n = 10, HIGH group) of reduced sitting time, those who were in the middle 50 percentile (n = 18, MID group), and those in low 25 percentile (n = 10, LOW group).
Results: Participating in the 12-week exercise intervention resulted in significant decreases in body weight, body mass index, percent body fat, waist circumference, and metabolic risk factors. Improved parameters of body fat were proportionally and significantly associated with the amount of reduced sitting time since the greatest improvements were found in the HIGH group, which were
followed by those of the MID and LOW groups.
Conclusions: The findings of the study suggest that reduced sitting time can play a critical role in magnifying the beneficial effects of a combined exercise program on obesity and metabolic risk factors.

Keywords: Exercise training, Sitting time, Obesity, Metabolic syndrome

Fig. 1. Changed scores in body composition and metabolic risk factors among the groups.

Description of circuit weight training

Average values in daily sitting time recorded during postprandial periods

Average dietary intakes during the 12-week intervention period

Average changes in parameters of body fatness and physical fitness

Average changes in metabolic risk factors

  1. Haskell WL, Lee IM, Pate RR, Powell KE, Blair SN, Franklin BA, et al. Physical activity and public health: updated recommendation for adults from the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007;39:1423-34.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  2. Ministry of Health Welfare. Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010. Seoul:Ministry of Health Welfare; 2011.
  3. Statistics Korea. 2004 Time Use Survey. Seoul:Statistics Korea; 2004
  4. Hamilton MT, Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Zderic TW, Owen N. Too little exercise and too much sitting:inactivity physiology and the need for new recommendations on sedentary behaviour. Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports 2008;2:292-8.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  5. Levine JA, Lanningham-Foster LM, McCrady SK, Krizan AC, Olson LR, Kane PH, et al. Interindividual variation in posture allocation: possible role in human obesity. Science 2005;307:584-6.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Hamilton MT, Hamilton DG, Zderic TW. Role of low energy expenditure and sitting in obesity, metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease. Diabetes 2007;56:2655-67.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  7. Hamilton MT, Hamilton DG, Zderic TW. Exercise physiology versus inactivity physiology: an essential concept for understanding lipoprotein lipase regulation. Exerc Sport Sci Rev 2004;32:161-6.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  8. Hill JO, Wyatt HR. Role of physical activity in preventing and treating obesity. J Appl Physiol 2005;99:765-70.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Bensimhon DR, Kraus WE, Donahue MP. Obesity and physical activity: a review. Am Heart J 2006;151:598-603.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Wijndaele K, Duvigneaud N, Matton L, Duquet W, Thomis M, Beunen G, et al. Muscular strength, aerobic fitness, metabolic syndrome risk in Flemish adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007;39:233-40.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Owen N, Armstrong T, Zimmet PZ, Welborn TA, et al. Associations of TV viewing and physical activity with the metabolic syndrome in Australian adults. Diabetologia 2005;48:2254-61.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  12. World Health Organization Western Pacific Region, International Association for the Study of Obesity and the International Obesity Task Force. The Asia-Pacific Perspective: Redefining Obesity and its Treatment. Sydney: Health Communications Australia Pty Limited; 2000.
  13. Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Executive Summary of The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation, And Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol In Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III). JAMA 2001;285:2486-97.
  14. Hagstr?mer M, Oja P, Sj?str?m M. Physical activity and inactivity in an adult population assessed by accelerometry. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2007;39:1502-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  15. Healy GN, Dunstan DW, Salmon J, Cerin E, Shaw JE, Zimmet PZ, et al. Objectively measured light-intensity physical activity is independently associated with 2-h plasma glucose. Diabetes Care 2007;30:1384-9.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  16. Patel AV, Bernstein L, Deka A, Feigelson HS, Campbell PT, Gapstur SM, et al. Leisure time spent sitting in relation to total mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults. Am J Epidemiol 2010;172:419-29.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  17. Hu FB, Li TY, Colditz GA, Willett WC, Manson JE. Television watching and other sedentary behaviors in relation to risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus in women. JAMA 2003;289:1785-91.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. Ekblom-Bak E, Hell?nius ML, Ekblom B. Are we facing a new paradigm of inactivity physiology? Br J Sports Med 2010;44:834-5.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  19. Shoham N, Gottlieb R, Sharabani-Yosef O, Zaretsky U, Benayahu D, Gefen A. Static mechanical stretching accelerates lipid production in 3T3-L1 adipocytes by activating the MEK signaling pathway. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2012; 302:C429-41.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  20. Jakes RW, Day NE, Khaw KT, Luben R, Oakes S, Welch A, et al. Television viewing and low participation in vigorous recreation are independently associated with obesity and markers of cardiovascular disease risk: EPIC-Norfolk population-based study. Eur J Clin Nutr 2003;57:1089-96.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  21. Powell KE, Thompson PD, Caspersen CJ, Kendrick JS. Physical activity and the incidence of coronary heart disease. Annu Rev Public Health 1987;8:253-87.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Blair SN, Kohl HW 3rd, Barlow CE, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Gibbons LW, Macera CA. Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men. JAMA 1995;273:1093-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef