Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome

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Korean J Obes 2005; 14(3): 178-185

Published online July 1, 2005

Copyright © Korean Society for the Study of Obesity.

Risk Factors for Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Ji Hoe Park, Hong Ji Song, Joung Ki Choun, Jung Jin Cho, Yu Jin Paek, Kyung Hee Park, Ahm Kim¹, Pyl Ryang Lee¹, Jong Yun Hwang²

Department of Family Medicine, Hallym Sacred Heart Hospital, College of Medicine, Hallym University, Seoul, Korea;
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Asan Medical Center, College of Medicine, University of Ulsan, Seoul, Korea¹;
Department of Obstetics and Gynecology, Kangwon National University Hospital, College of Medicine,
Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Korea,²

Abstract

Background: The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is 2~3% in Korean women and GDM is known as a risk factor of type 2 DM. The effects of pregestational weight and also the impact of weight change during gestational period on GDM were studied in addition to the risk factors of GDM.
Method: Subjects involved 266 pregnant women, in their twenties to forties, who visited the Obstetrics and Gynecologic clinic in a university hospital for prenatal care from January 2000 to December 2002. The GDM group consisted of 91 women, who were confirmed by 100g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the control group consisted of 175 women. Clinical characteristics and obstetric histories of the subjects were assessed and analyzed each time during pregestation period, first visit, screening test period and final test period.
Results: The mean age of participants in the GDM group was 32.6 ± 4.1 and that of the control group was 32.3 ± 4.2. The mean pregestational body mass index (BMI) was statistically higher (22.7 ± 3.6 kg/㎡) among the GDM group compared to the control group (20.3 ± 2.2 kg/㎡). Other statistically significant factors were glucosuria (P < 0.001), family history of DM (P < 0.001), past history of GDM (P < 0.001), pregnancy induced hypertension (P = 0.034), previously delivered baby's weight (P = 0.018). According to the multivariate analysis, those with family history of DM (OR = 5.016), high pregestational BMI (OR = 4.811 (overweight), 16.196 (obesity)), and glucosuria (OR = 57.160) showed statistically significant association with GDM.
Conclusions: We conclude that high pregestational BMI is a significant risk factor of GDM in Korean women. The risk of GDM may be prevented by pregestational weight control.

Keywords: Gestational diabetes mellitus, Risk factors, Body mass index (BMI)