Journal of Obesity & Metabolic Syndrome

Search

Article

Korean J Obes 2013; 22(1): 30-38

Published online March 30, 2013

Copyright © Korean Society for the Study of Obesity.

Effects of 12 Weeks Aerobicxercise Training on Fitness, Body Composition, Skeletal Muscle Index and Blood Lipid Profiles in Obese Elderly Women

Jee Young Hong, Jung sok Oak*

College of Sport Science, Dankook University

Received: January 7, 2013; Reviewed : February 19, 2013; Accepted: March 8, 2013

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Background: Interests for preventing sarcopenic obesity in old age are getting higher. However, there are fewer researches for this. Hence, the purpose of this study was to verify the effects of 12-week aerobic and anaerobic combined exercise on elderly obese women's health for preventing sarcopenic obesity.
Method: Subjects were 42 elderly women whose average body fat was 33.84 ± 3.79%. The exercise program was composed of warm-up with 10 minutes, cool-down with 10 minutes, and main exercise with 40 minutes. The main exercise was allowed to be performed the aerobic exercise with intensity of 40~70% VO2R for 20 minutes and the anaerobic resistant exercise with intensity of 40~70% 1 RM for the remaining 20 minutes. The exercise frequency was carried out exercise during totally 12 weeks with 3 times a week. All the subjects were carried out by submaximal exercise test and Senior Fitness Test for pre-and-post tests. Total muscle mass and ASMI, the blood lipid and IGF-1 were analyzed. To analyze exercise effects of test results, two-way repeated measures ANOVA was carried out by each variable. The statistical significance level was set for α = .05.
Results: The interactive effects were shown significantly between pre-and-post tests and between groups in variables of arm curl, ASMI, Lower limbs muscle mass, and Total Muscle mass, TC and HDL.
Conclusion: The 12-week aerobic and anaerobic combined exercise program makes them delayed a reduction in muscle mass, a drop in ASMI, an increase in blood TC, and a drop in HDL along with improving the upper-limb function.

Keywords: Aerobic?anaerobic Combined Exercise Training, Obese Elderly Women, Fitness, Body Composition, Skeletal Muscle Index, Blood Lipid Profiles


Baseline characteristics of the study subjects



Exercise Program



Change of fitness



Change of body composition



Change of blood lipid profiles and IGF-1


  1. Statistics Korea. The aged Statistics 2008. [accessed 2010 Jul 15] Available from: URL: http://kostat.go.kr.
  2. Roos NP, Havens B. Predictors of successful aging: a twelve-year study of Manitoba elderly. Am J. Public Health 1991;81:63-8.
    CrossRef
  3. Williams GN, Higgins MJ, Lewek MD. Aging skeletal muscle: physiologic changes and the effects of training. Phys Ther 2002;82:62-8.
    Pubmed
  4. Vandervoort AA. Aging of the human neuromuscular system. Muscle Nerve 2002;25:17-25.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  5. Solomon AM, Bouloux PM. Modifying muscle mass-the endocrine perspective. J Endocrinol 2006;191:349-60.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  6. Dreyer HC, Volpi E. Role of protein and amino acids in the pathophysiology and treatment of sarcopenia. J Am Coll Nutr 2005;24:140S-5S.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  7. Roth SM, Metter EJ, Ling S, Ferrucci L. Inflammatory factors in age-related muscle wasting. Curr Opin Rheumatol 2006;18:625-30.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  8. Zamboni M, Zoico E, Scartezzini T, Mazzali G, Tosoni P, Zivelonghi A, et al. Body composition changes in stable-weight elderly subjects: the effect of sex. Aging Clin Exp Res 2003;15:321-7.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  9. Roubenoff R. Sarcopenic obesity: the confluence of two epidemics. Obes Res 2004;12:887-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  10. Zamboni M, Mazzali G, Fanin F, Rossi A, Di Francesco V. Sarcopenic obesity: a new category of obesity in the elderly. Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis 2008;18:388-95.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  11. American college of sports medicine (ACSM). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 8th ed. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2010.
  12. American college of sports medicine (ACSM). ACSM's Guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 8th ed. New York: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2009.
  13. Park SK, Kim EH, Kwon YC, Park JK, Kang SY, Jang JH. Effects of combined exercise program on health-related physical fitness, anti-aging hormone and prevention of sarcopenia in elderly women with sarcopenia. KSSLS 2010;40:435-42.
  14. Kim JS. Effects of exercise type on body composition, physical fitness and blood variables in obese middle-aged women. Journal of sport and leisure studies 2010;41:963-973
  15. Park SK, Kim EH. Effects of combined training and ACE polymorphism on risk factors of metabolic syndrome in the older women. The Korean Journal of Physical Education 2006;45:503-14.
  16. Wang N, Hikida RS, Staron RS, Simoneau JA. Muscle fiber types of women after resistance training-quantitative ultrastructure and enzyme activity. Pflugers Arch 1993;424:494-502.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  17. Schilke JM. Slowing the aging process with physical activity. J Gerontol Nurs 1991;17:4-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  18. O’Connor B, Simmons J, O’Shea P. Weight training today. San Francisco (U.S.A): West publishing Co;1989.
  19. Kim HS, Park WY. The senior fitness test manual. Seoul: Daehanmedia; 2005.
  20. Kim J, Wang Z, Heymsfield SB, Baumgartner RN, Gallagher D. Total-body skeletal muscle mass:estimation by a new dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method. Am J Clin Nutr 2002;76:378-83.
    Pubmed
  21. Sherrington C, Whitney JC, Lord SR, Herbert RD, Cumming RG, Close JC. Effective exercise for the prevention of falls: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Geriatr Soc 2008;56:2234-43.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  22. Siddiqui NI, Nessa A, Hossain MA. Regular physical exercise: way to healthy life. Mymensingh Med J 2010;19:154-8.
    Pubmed
  23. Fitzsimmons A, Bonner F, Lindsay R. Failure to diagnose osteoprosis. Am J Phys Med Rehabil 1995;74:240-2.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  24. Toraman NF, Ayceman N. Effects of six weeks of detraining on retention of functional fitness of old people after nine weeks of multicomponent training. Br J Sports Med 2005;39:565-8
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  25. Hurley BF. Age, gender, muscular strength. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci 1995;50:41-4.
    Pubmed
  26. Nair KS. Aging muscle. Am J Clin Nutr 2005;81:953-63.
    Pubmed
  27. Schilke JM. Slowing the aging process with physical activity. J Gerontol Nurs 1991;17:4-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  28. Taaffe DR. Sarcopenia--exercise as a treatment strategy. Aust Fam Physician 2006;35:130-4.
    Pubmed
  29. McCarthy JP, Agre JC, Graf BK, Pozniak MA, Vailas AC. Compatibility of adaptive responses with combining strength and endurance training. Med Sci Sports and Exerc 1995;27:429-36. 30, Marom-Klibansky R, Drory Y. Physical activity for the elderly. Harefuah 2002;141:646-50, 664-5.
  30. Park SK, Kim EH, Kwon YC. The Effect of multicomponent exercise training on body composition and health related fitness in elderly women. KSR 2005;16:109-16
  31. Kwon YC, Park SK, Kim EH, Park JK. The effects of multi-component exercise training on VO2max, muscle mass, whole bone mineral density and fall risk in community-dwelling elderly women. Jpn J Phys Fitness Sports Med 2008;57:339-48
    CrossRef
  32. McFarlane SI, Banerji M, Sowers JR. Insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2001;86:713-8.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  33. Cooper KH. The aerobic program for total well-being. New York: M. Evans and Co; 1982.
  34. Morris JN, Clayton DG, Everitt MG, Semmence AM, Burgess EH. Exercise in leisure time: coronary attack and death rates. Br Heart J 1990;63:325-34.
    Pubmed KoreaMed CrossRef
  35. American college of sports medicine (ACSM). ACSM's guidelines for exercise testing and prescription. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins; 2006. p. 246-51.
  36. Taylor AH, Cable NT, Faulkner G, Hillsdon M, Narici M, Van Der Bij AK. Physical activity and older adults: a review of health benefits and effectiveness of interventions. J Sports Sci 2004;22:713-25.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  37. Kim YS, Park CC. The effect of aerobic exercise and muscle resistance exercise on body composition and blood lipid of menoposal obese women. J Korean Soc Living Environ Sys 2005;12:345-51
  38. Kilbom A, Hartley LH, Saltin B, Bjure J, Grimby G, Astrand I. Physical training in sedentary middle-aged and older men. I. Medical evaluation. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1969;24:315-22.
    Pubmed CrossRef
  39. Motoyama T, Koyama N, Matsuzawa M. Electron-impact excitation of atoms in high-lying doubly excited states: Correlation effects in collision dynamics. Phys Rev A 1988;15:670-77.
    CrossRef
  40. Altekruse EB, Willmore JH. Changes in blood chemistries following a controlled exercise program. J Occup Med 1973;15:110-3.
    Pubmed
  41. Whitehurst M, Menendez E. Endurance training in older women. Phys Sportsmed 1991;19:95-104.
  42. Oh DS, Ahn OH, Jung JH, Yoon SJ. The effect of aerobic and anaerobic exercise on body composition and plasma lipids of obesity middle girl students. The Korean Journal of Physical Education 1998;37:242-55.